Comunicación de otra galaxia

La identidad, esencia de la marca

A la hora de crear el capital de marca, la identidad de marca es uno de los elementos más importantes

La identidad define quién es verdaderamente la marca y cómo la percibe su público objetivo. En definitiva, son los atributos y elementos identificables que la forman además de cómo son percibidos e interpretados por aquellos que entran en contacto con la marca.

En las últimas décadas han surgido diferentes puntos de vista para encuadrar la identidad de marca y crear un proceso homogéneo en su formación. Hoy nos centraremos en la visión de David A. Aaker (1996).

La marca como producto

Según Aaker, la identidad de marca se compone por una estructura de doce dimensiones agrupadas en función de 4 perspectivas:

  • Ámbito del producto
  • Atributos del producto
  • Calidad y valor
  • Usos
  • Usuarios
  • Origen

La marca como persona

  • Personalidad: crear un vínculo para que el consumidor cree su propia identidad.
  • Relación cliente-marca: se pretende que los clientes ansíen poder poseer la personalidad de la marca.

La marca como Organización

  • Atributos Organizacionales: valores, cultura organizativa, competencias de la organización o el propio personal como recurso. Son atributos más duraderos y sólidos.
  • Local vs. Global: una estrategia local crea un vínculo muy sensible con el consumidor, mientras que una estrategia global lo que hace es aportar prestigio y capacidad para competir.

La marca como símbolo

  • Imágenes visuales, metáforas: la representación gráfica de la marca supone cohesión con la identidad. Hace más sencillo el reconocimiento y el recuerdo de ésta.
  • Herencia: las fuertes tradiciones por las que ha pasado una marca ayudan a constituir su esencia.

Este gurú del branding, nos dice que la identidad de marca se puede dividir en dos planos:

  • La identidad central. Estamos hablando de la esencia de la marca, que no suele cambiar, aunque viaje a lo largo del tiempo entre diferentes mercados y productos.
  • La identidad extendida. Incluye elementos de identidad, organizados en grupos importantes que dan textura y totalidad. Son elementos que ayudan a comprender la razón de ser de la marca.

 

Tamara Ayllon García
Mi nombre es Tamara y soy la benjamina de esta familia de bichos. Alegre, divertida, fantasiosa, entusiasta, meticulosa y en ocasiones me siento una (arrítmica) estrella del pop. Diseñadora autodidacta, me inicié en el mundo de la administración. Pero los briefings me atraían más que los balances, así que cambié mi rumbo en este bichuno mundo y ahora soy una ardiente amante del marketing, la publicidad y la comunicación. Cada uno de enero me propongo hacer más ejercicio y gastar menos dinero en ropa.
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